The term citizenship indicates the relationship between an individual and the State, and is, in particular, a status, called “civitatis”, to which the legal system reconnects the fullness of civil and political rights. In Italy, the modern concept of citizenship arises at the time of the constitution of the unitary state and is currently governed by the law of 5 February 1992, n. 91.
Furthermore, every citizen of a member country of the EU, in addition to the citizenship of the country of origin, enjoys European citizenship. According to the text of the Treaty of Maastricht (TEU), anyone who has the citizenship of a Member State is a citizen of the Union.
Citizenship of the European Union entails a series of well-defined rules and rights, which can be grouped into four categories:
• freedom of movement and residence throughout the territory of the Union;
• the right to vote and be elected in municipal and European Parliament elections in the Member State of residence;
• the protection by the diplomatic and consular authorities of any Member State in a third country in which the State of which the person in question has citizenship is not represented;
• the right to petition the European Parliament and appeal to the European Ombudsman.